Global Flows, Local Appropriations

Introduction
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And it is evident in the involuntary return of over , refugees from Pakistan to an unstable Afghanistan last year—the most since and a six-fold increase from Reducing our emergency and refugee assistance support for frontline states will heighten these high pressure situations. It is also demonstrated by the fact that U.

Cuts to humanitarian budgets or development assistance will only exacerbate the situation. Development assistance is key to stemming global threats. Fragile states—the source of many threats to U. High-profile arenas like Syria and Afghanistan are certainly fragile, but the list also includes more overlooked crises like South Sudan which has produced over one million refugees in the last three months and Niger one of the poorest countries on earth and a major transit point for West African migrants headed to Europe. Resolving fragility requires helping these states build and sustain effective institutions, inclusive governance structures, and economies that can respond to the needs of their people.

In past years, only 30 percent of USAID spending has been in fragile states, half of that to just four countries. And the assistance they do receive is often through singular interventions that do little to build resiliency e.

The risks women and girls face in crisis situations are striking: 1 in 3 women worldwide experiences some form of gender-based violence in her lifetime, including at least 1 in 5 displaced women. Girls are 2. Funding for programs with a gender component would be cut by 55 percent from to The direct decrease in gender-specific funding would have serious consequences e.

However, the cuts to refugee and humanitarian assistance will also disproportionately impact these neglected populations, as, for example, 75 percent of Syrian refugees in neighboring countries and 86 percent of South Sudanese refugees in Uganda are women and children. A strong resettlement program is a critical strategic element of U. The proposed cuts to the foreign assistance budget impact not only our ability to help vulnerable populations and diminish risks abroad, but also here in the United States. In addition to the lives that will be lost as a result of this abdication of U.

It emboldens terrorist groups who seek to sow fear by targeting the very people they have victimized. It deprives American communities of the talents and contributions of these new Americans, and also keeps American families indefinitely separated. We have seen that U. Additionally, 18 countries committed to start or expand resettlement programs, roughly doubling the number of refugees they would collectively admit.

Many of these changes come with significant political tradeoffs for host nations; following through on them will take continued global encouragement and accountability. It will be difficult to ensure other countries uphold their commitments and shared responsibility if the United States retracts its leadership.

Moreover, U. The UN system has overseen decades of unparalleled international peace. Every year, the UN provides food to 80 million people in 80 countries. It provides life-saving assistance to the 65 million people displaced by conflict and instability. UN peacekeeping efforts, too, have been shown to shorten conflicts , prevent them from recurring , and reduce harm to civilians.

There are undoubtedly improvements that can and should be made to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, accountability and transparency of these critical partners, but the consequences of these drastic cuts will fall first and foremost on civilian lives and U. The World Bank and other multilateral development banks MDBs likewise have leading expertise in development programming, and also have the advantage of borrowing against capital contributions on the private market, enabling them to extend dollars of financing every year per each dollar invested in a one-time contribution by donor countries.

Cutting foreign aid could further set back an entire generation of people in crisis, and give rise to additional threats against our strategic concerns. The current global challenges we face as a nation argue for more, not less, foreign aid, and strong U. It is a budget without strategy, disconnected from the threats and challenges that must be contained, and the opportunities that could be seized, to make the world safer and more prosperous for all.

The IRC calls on the U. Congress to ultimately fund a robust foreign assistance budget that supports these critical goals.

mestralonline.org/sites/20-generisch-plaquenil.php Letters of support for U. Skip to main content. Afghanistan Bangladesh Malaysia. Myanmar Pakistan Thailand. Colombia Venezuela. In the agricultural part of the CBA, the contribution from production on own territory within the EU countries declined from approximately 1. Results are displayed separately for eHANPP related to agriculture cropland and grazing lands and forestry forestlands , because data for the latter were available only from onward. Our results underline the growing role of international trade for national and regional supply with biomass products.

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For agricultural products, measured in units of eHANPP, the volume of imports exceed exports by a factor of just above 2 in ; this factor increased to almost 4 by This indicates that the EU depends, to a considerable and growing extent, on productive capacities of ecosystems outside its boundaries, despite the high productivity achieved on its own territory Haberl et al.

However, this increase in eHANPP of net imports linked to agricultural trade was not linear: In the first half, a slight decline occurred, whereas in the second decade a considerable increase in net imports was observed. The maps show the net trade balance of the EU with a number of other regions in , , and Throughout the period, South America strongly gains and North America is gradually losing relevance in providing ecosystem services linked to the EU's consumption. The results clearly demonstrate that the supply of the EU with biomass products has a global footprint that is increasingly focused on one of the two regions of the world with substantial potentials for cropland expansion: Latin America FAO and IIASA ; Ramankutty et al.

In general terms, our findings corroborate earlier results showing that imports are sourced predominantly from regions with a low population density Erb et al. One particularly interesting question is how biomass flows and eHANPP are related, given that eHANPP accounts are, to a large degree, influenced by the efficiency of land use in a region. Biomass flows in table 1 are expressed as primary biomass equivalents i. This ratio provides information on the fraction of biomass affected during land use that is actually put to use.

Cultural globalization

A considerable fraction of biomass is destroyed during harvest and not recovered and used for production e. A high per capita biomass flow in primary crop equivalents is indicative of consumption patterns in which products with large primary biomass flows per unit of final product, above all, animal food products, play a prominent role. Given that efficiencies in terms of HANPP are often the result of high external inputs into agriculture e.

Per capita levels of biomass consumption are considerably higher in North America than in the EU, whereas it is slightly lower in Oceania and South America, both of which surpass the EU in the production perspective table 1. In both accounts, values are highest in sparsely populated regions, such as the Scandinavian and Baltic countries as well as Ireland. They are lower in the densely populated Central and Southern European countries.

For countries such as Austria, and to a certain degree also France, the domestic, exports, and imported components are of a similar magnitude. Countries are ranked from highest to lowest per capita value in the respective accounts; the exact numbers are provided in tables S7 to S8 in the supporting information on the Web. PBA reveals large differences and thus further highlights the relevance of trade in the EU: Whereas strongly net importing countries, such as the Netherlands and Belgium, move up more than ten places in the CBA ranking, net exporting countries, such as Hungary, Bulgaria, and Austria, are found further down in the CBA compared to the PBA ranking.

Though the monetary trade balance calculated as exports revenues minus the costs of import for the considered agricultural products is slightly negative, the picture is much more balanced in terms of monetary, than in terms of biophysical, data. Sources : Own calculations and FAO The former two constitute the EU's trade balance. The observed differences are linked to the higher intensities per monetary unit of imports: For instance, in , one dollar of costs for imports was linked to 3 times the eHANPP than per dollar export revenue; over time, this disparity widened as the corresponding factor had been below 2 in A main reason for these differences could be the fact that the EU imports relatively unprocessed bulk products and exports higher processes products FAO Overall, comparing these aggregated numbers and intensities shows that the EU benefits disproportionally in monetary terms from agricultural trade whereas ecological impacts of trade, in terms of eHANPP, occur to a disproportionally large share outside the EU.

Ecological impacts of land use, however, are closely linked to the intensity of use. Values are indexed to for the respective total according to the PBA. Areas were calculated using factors derived from Haberl and colleagues The reason is that grasslands and forests are, on average, used much less biomass intensively than croplands. The intensity with which grasslands are used varies immensely between different systems and regions Herrero et al.

This results largely from the forestry sector: European forests are used more intensively than the forests in many of the countries from which the EU imports especially Russia , that is, a relatively smaller area of forest is required to produce one unit of wood within the EU than it is on average in countries from which the EU sources it imports. In order to satisfy its demand for biomass for food, feed, fiber, and bioenergy, the EU depends, to a considerable and growing extent, on productive lands outside its own boundaries, thereby potentially displacing some of the environmental impacts related to its supply of biomass products to other countries or regions.

This corroborates earlier findings emphasizing the important role of trade in biomass products in enabling the EU's forest transition Meyfroidt et al. The issue of how to deal with growing telecouplings between geographic regions and their economies induced by international trade clearly presents a key frontier of socioeconomic metabolism research. Considerable progress has been made in the last years with assessments of upstream resource requirements, as reflected in material flows e.

Its physical extent—the global terrestrial surface of approximately million square kilomters—represents a planetary boundary that is not to be overcome. However, this absolute limit is of limited significance, given that land differs strongly in quality and intensity of use, and only some uses are mutually exclusive e. This renders upstream resource demand metrics that simply account for land areas used difficult to interpret. The research presented in this article attempts to advance this research frontier by providing an illustrative case for the usefulness of the indicator, eHANPP.

By relating data on eHANPP to information on the economic value of biomass flows, we were able to point to the concept's usefulness when discussing resource intensities. Further investigation along these lines will produce valuable insights when aiming at limiting negative impacts per monetary or physical unit of useful output. Supporting Information S1 : This supporting information contains eight detailed data tables underlying the three figures in the article.

This study contributes to the Global Land Project www. The authors thank Maria Niedertscheider for her geographical information systems GIS experience and help with the maps. It does, however, include comprehensive estimates of the HANPP directly required for traded biomass products e.

Account Options

See Haberl and colleagues for conceptual details. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal of Industrial Ecology. J Ind Ecol.

1 Introduction

Published online Feb Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Email : ta. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Supporting Information S1 : This supporting information contains eight detailed data tables underlying the three figures in the article.

Summary The ongoing globalization process strengthens the connections between different geographic regions through trade. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2.